Update Rewriting and Integrity Constraint Maintenance in a Schema Evolution Support System: PRISM++

Curino, Carlo; Moon, Hyun J.; Deutsch, Alin; Zaniolo, Carlo
Deutsch, A
Curino, C
Zaniolo, C
Moon, H
Citations range: 
10 - 49

Supporting legacy applications when the database schema evolves represents a long-standing challenge of practical and theoretical importance. Recent work has produced algorithms and systems that automate the process of data migration and query adaptation; how- ever, the problems of evolving integrity constraints and supporting legacy updates under schema and integrity constraints evolution are significantly more difficult and have thus far remained unsolved. In this paper, we address this issue by introducing a formal evolution model for the database schema structure and its integrity constraints, and use it to derive update mapping techniques akin to the rewriting techniques used for queries. Thus, we (i) propose a new set of Integrity Constraints Modification Operators (ICMOs), (ii) characterize the impact on integrity constraints of structural schema changes, (iii) devise representations that enable the rewriting of updates, and (iv) develop a unified approach for query and update rewriting under constraints. We then describe the efficient implementation of these techniques provided by our PRISM++ system. The effectiveness of PRISM++ and its enabling technology has been verified on a testbed containing the evolution histories of several scientific databases and web information systems, including the Genetic DB Ensembl (410+ schema versions in 9 years), and Wikipedia (240+ schema versions in 6 years).